Low-Cost Wearable Fluidic Sweat Collection Patch for Continuous Analyte Monitoring and Offline Analysis

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Sweat sensors allow for new unobtrusive ways to continuously monitor an athlete's performance and health status. Significant advances have been made in the optimization of sensitivity, selectivity, and durability of electrochemical sweat sensors. However, comparing the in situ performance of these sensors in detail remains challenging because standardized sweat measurement methods to validate sweat sensors in a physiological setting do not yet exist. Current collection methods, such as the absorbent patch technique, are prone to contamination and are labor-intensive, which limits the number of samples that can be collected over time for offline reference measurements. We present an easy-to-fabricate sweat collection system that allows for continuous electrochemical monitoring, as well as chronological sampling of sweat for offline analysis. The patch consists of an analysis chamber hosting a conductivity sensor and a sequence of 5 to 10 reservoirs that contain level indicators that monitor the filling speed. After testing the performance of the patch in the laboratory, elaborate physiological validation experiments (3 patch locations, 6 participants) were executed. The continuous sweat conductivity measurements were compared with laboratory [Na+] and [Cl-] measurements of the samples, and a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97) was found. Furthermore, sweat rate derived from ventilated capsule measurement at the three locations was compared with patch filling speed and continuous conductivity readings. As expected from the literature, sweat conductivity was linearly related to sweat rate as well. In short, a successfully validated sweat collection patch is presented that enables sensor developers to systematically validate novel sweat sensors in a physiological setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6893–6901
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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