During the service of composite airframes, damage initiates and accumulates due to the manufacturing imperfections, impact damage and cyclic loadings, leading to the degradation in its load-bearing capacity. The nature of the degradation process is complicated due to the multi-mode damage propagation and complexity in the structural details of airframes. In the condition-based health management of airframe structures, the degradation is expressed in the concept of remaining useful life (RUL). Online prognostic health management is an emerging field dedicated to the timely prediction of RUL using onboard sensors. This work presents a mechanics-informed approach to the prognosis of a typical airframe element, stiffened CFRP composite panel, under compression-compression fatigue. The fatigue degradation of axial stiffness is monitored by Lamb wave velocity and utilised for online RUL prediction via particle filter.