Modeling dynamic stall of an airfoil with vortex generators using a double-wake panel model with viscous–inviscid interaction

Wei Yu*, Lukas K. Bajarūnas, Alessandro Zanon, Carlos J.S. Ferreira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Vortex generators (VGs) have been widely applied to wind turbines thanks to their potential to increase aerodynamic performance. Due to the complex inflow perceived by a rotor and the proneness to flow separation, VGs on wind turbines usually experience highly unsteady flow. While there are models that exist to simulate the steady effects of VGs, we lack a fast and efficient tool to model the unsteady performance of airfoils equipped with VGs. This paper adopts an unsteady double-wake panel model with viscous–inviscid interaction developed to simulate a vertical axis turbine in dynamic stall, adding the capability of predicting the dynamic aerodynamic performance of VG-equipped airfoils. The results of a series of steady and unsteady cases of an airfoil with different VG configurations in various pitch motions in free and forced transition are verified against experimental data. Results show that the double wake model offers results with sufficient accuracy compared with experimental data to claim the model's validity in a preliminary evaluation of an airfoil's capability to prevent stall with VGs. A few limitations, including the accuracy in prediction the transition location, separation, and reattachment, have been identified for future development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-297
Number of pages21
JournalWind Energy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024


The authors would like to acknowledge the authors of De Tavernier et al.,22,36 whose open-access XfoilVG model and experimental dataset are crucial for this work to reach its potential.


  • double wake
  • dynamic stall
  • viscous–inviscid interaction
  • vortex generators
  • vortex panel method


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