Modelling of Environmental Ageing of Polymers and Polymer Composites—Modular and Multiscale Methods

Andrey E. Krauklis*, Christian W. Karl, Iuri B.C.M. Rocha, Juris Burlakovs, Ruta Ozola-Davidane, Abedin I. Gagani, Olesja Starkova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Service lifetimes of polymers and polymer composites are impacted by environmental ageing. The validation of new composites and their environmental durability involves costly testing programs, thus calling for more affordable and safe alternatives, and modelling is seen as such an alternative. The state-of-the-art models are systematized in this work. The review offers a comprehensive overview of the modular and multiscale modelling approaches. These approaches provide means to predict the environmental ageing and degradation of polymers and polymer composites. Furthermore, the systematization of methods and models presented herein leads to a deeper and reliable understanding of the physical and chemical principles of environmental ageing. As a result, it provides better confidence in the modelling methods for predicting the environmental durability of polymeric materials and fibre-reinforced composites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number216
Pages (from-to)1-44
Number of pages44
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Accelerated testing
  • Biodegradable
  • Composite
  • Diffusion
  • Durability
  • Environmental ageing
  • Fibre
  • Lifetime prediction
  • Mathematical modelling
  • Modelling
  • Multiscale modelling
  • Polymer


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