Multisize Electrode Field-of-View: Validation by High Resolution Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

Sharif Omara, Claire A. Glashan, Bawer J. Tofig, Lore Leenknegt, Hans Dierckx, Alexander V. Panfilov, Hans K.C. Beukers, Qian Tao, Rob J. van der Geest, More Authors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Background: Voltage mapping to detect ventricular scar is important for guiding catheter ablation, but the field-of-view of unipolar, bipolar, conventional, and microelectrodes as it relates to the extent of viable myocardium (VM) is not well defined. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate electroanatomic voltage-mapping (EAVM) with different-size electrodes for identifying VM, validated against high-resolution ex-vivo cardiac magnetic resonance (HR-LGE-CMR). Methods: A total of 9 swine with early-reperfusion myocardial infarction were mapped with the QDOT microcatheter. HR-LGE-CMR (0.3-mm slices) were merged with EAVM. At each EAVM point, the underlying VM in multisize transmural cylinders and spheres was quantified from ex vivo CMR and related to unipolar and bipolar voltages recorded from conventional and microelectrodes. Results: In each swine, 220 mapping points (Q1, Q3: 216, 260 mapping points) were collected. Infarcts were heterogeneous and nontransmural. Unipolar and bipolar voltage increased with VM volumes from >175 mm3 up to >525 mm3 (equivalent to a 5-mm radius cylinder with height >6.69 mm). VM volumes in subendocardial cylinders with 1- or 3-mm depth correlated poorly with all voltages. Unipolar voltages recorded with conventional and microelectrodes were similar (difference 0.17 ± 2.66 mV) and correlated best to VM within a sphere of radius 10 and 8 mm, respectively. Distance-weighting did not improve the correlation. Conclusions: Voltage increases with transmural volume of VM but correlates poorly with small amounts of VM, which limits EAVM in defining heterogeneous scar. Microelectrodes cannot distinguish thin from thick areas of subendocardial VM. The field-of-view for unipolar recordings for microelectrodes and conventional electrodes appears to be 8 to 10 mm, respectively, and unexpectedly similar.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • late-gadolinium enhancement
  • microelectrodes
  • non-transmural scar
  • voltage mapping


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