A lattice-Boltzmann method has been employed to study the aeroacoustics and aerodynamics of airfoils equipped with leading edge treatments, namely the porous leading edge and leading edge serrations. The present study aims to identify the differences in noise reduction mechanisms between the two treatments. Within the context of turbomachinery applications, the airfoils undergo aerodynamic excitation due to the impingement of turbulent wake shed by an upstream rod. Two airfoil profiles are considered: NACA 0012 and NACA 5406; the latter mimics geometrical features and aerodynamic loading distribution of the outlet-guide vane in a turbofan test rig. Simulations are carried out at a freestream Mach number of 0.22, corresponding to Reynolds number based on the rod diameter of 48 000. The serrations are designed to follow a sinusoidal planform shape, whereas the porous leading edge is based on a Ni-Cr-Al metal-foam with homogeneous and isotropic properties. It is found that the porous leading edge attenuates noise by dampening surface pressure fluctuations due to the reduced blockage effect compared to the solid one. Differently, the leading edge serrations promote destructive interference of noise sources along the span. When applied against turbulent inflow with tonal characteristic, such as that induced by the impingement of Kàrmàn vortex street in the rod wake, the latter is more effective. On the other hand, both treatments are found to produce similar broadband noise reduction. When comparing aerodynamic performances, it is found that under a lifting condition, cross-flow is present through the porous material which results in lift reduction and drag increase. A serrated porous leading edge is then proposed to combine the benefits of the two leading edge treatments. This results in optimal noise reduction performances and lower aerodynamic penalty with respect to the fully porous leading edge.
- Porous material
- Turbulence-impingement noise