Occupants’ Motion Comfort and Driver’s Feel: An Explorative Study About Their Relation in Remote Driving

Georgios Papaioannou, Lin Zhao, Mikael Nybacka, Jenny Jerrelind, Riender Happee, Lars Drugge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Teleoperation is considered as a viable option to control fully automated vehicles (AVs) of Level 4 and 5 in special conditions. However, by bringing the remote drivers in the loop, their driving experience should be realistic to secure safe and comfortable remote control. Therefore, the remote control tower should be designed such that remote drivers receive high quality cues regarding the vehicle state and the driving environment. In this direction, the steering feedback could be manipulated to provide feedback to the remote drivers regarding how the vehicle reacts to their commands. However, until now, it is unclear how the remote drivers&#x2019; steering feel could impact occupant&#x2019;s motion comfort. This paper focuses on exploring how the driver feel in remote (RD) and normal driving (ND) are related with occupants&#x2019; motion comfort. More specifically, different types of steering feedback controllers are applied in (a) the steering system of a Research Concept Vehicle-model E (RCV-E) and (b) the steering system of a remote control tower. An experiment was performed to assess driver feel when the RCV-E is normally and remotely driven. Subjective assessment and objective metrics are employed to assess drivers&#x2019; feel and occupants&#x2019; motion comfort in both remote and normal driving scenarios. The results illustrate that motion sickness and ride comfort are dominated by steering velocity variations in remote driving, while throttle input variations dominate in normal driving. The results demonstrate that motion sickness and steering velocity increase both around 25<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\%$</tex-math> </inline-formula> from normal to remote driving.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Apr 2024


  • Adaptive control
  • driver feel
  • Measurement
  • Motion sickness
  • motion sickness
  • normal driving
  • Poles and towers
  • Remote control
  • remote driving
  • ride comfort
  • Steering feedback
  • Steering systems
  • Vehicles


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