Over-the-Air Characterization Techniques for Antenna-Coupled Direct-Detectors at Terahertz Frequencies

M. Hoogelander*, M. Alonso Del Pino, N. Llombart, M. Spirito

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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The continuous advancements in the coverage and sensitivity of terahertz direct-detector imagers places increasing constraints on the test benches needed for characterization. Already, relative differences on the order of a few decibels are observed between simulated and measured performance in the state-of-the-art literature. This contribution elaborates on our experimental strategies to maximize the characterization accuracy and precision of terahertz direct-detection imagers using a broadband, over-the-air measurement procedure. As a demonstration, four elements within a dense detector array were characterized in the WR2.2 band. By optimizing the modulation frequency in the setup for minimal impact of low-frequency noise and interference, a measurement dynamic range up to 30 dB was achieved, including the path loss over 20 cm. The hardware-to-model agreement of the characterized array is below 1 dB between 325 and 450 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, IMS 2023
Place of PublicationDanvers
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-4764-7
ISBN (Print)979-8-3503-4765-4
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, IMS 2023 - San Diego, United States
Duration: 11 Jun 202316 Jun 2023

Publication series

NameIEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest
ISSN (Print)0149-645X


Conference2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, IMS 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • antenna array
  • antenna measurement
  • direct-detection
  • modulation
  • over-the-air measurement
  • Terahertz imaging
  • wideband measurement


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