Pathways to Industrial-Scale Fuel Out of Thin Air from CO2 Electrolysis

Wilson A. Smith*, Thomas Burdyny, David A. Vermaas, Hans Geerlings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)
71 Downloads (Pure)


Using renewable energy as an input, Power-to-X technologies have the potential to replace fossil fuels and chemicals with dense-energy carriers that are instead derived out of thin air. In this work, we put into context what the industrial-scale production of chemicals from ambient CO2 using CO2 electrolysis means in terms of future required operating conditions and the device and catalyst scales that will be needed for the technology to assume its role in our global energy system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1822-1834
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • CO electrolyzers
  • methanol synthesis
  • renewable energy
  • scaling novel energy technologies


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