Perspectives of patients and professionals on information and education after myocardial infarction with insight for mixed reality implementation: Cross-sectional interview study

Alexander D. Hilt, Kevin Mamaqi Kapllani, Beerend P. Hierck, Anne C. Kemp, Armagan Albayrak, Marijke Melles, Martin J. Schalij, Roderick W.C. Scherptong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Patient education is crucial in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Novel technologies such as augmented reality or mixed reality expand the possibilities for providing visual support in this process. Mixed reality creates interactive digital three-dimensional (3D) projections overlaying virtual objects on the real-world environment. While augmented reality only overlays objects, mixed reality not just overlays but anchors virtual objects to the real world. However, research on this technology in the patient domain is scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand how patients perceive information provided after myocardial infarction and examine if mixed reality can be supportive in this process. Methods: In total, 12 patients that experienced myocardial infarction and 6 health care professionals were enrolled in the study. Clinical, demographic, and qualitative data were obtained through semistructured interviews, with a main focus on patient experiences within the hospital and the knowledge they gained about their disease. These data were then used to map a susceptible timeframe to identify how mixed reality can contribute to patient information and education. Results: Knowledge transfer after myocardial infarction was perceived by patients as too extensive, not personal, and inconsistent. Notably, knowledge on anatomy and medication was minimal and was not recognized as crucial by patients, whereas professionals stated the opposite. Patient journey analysis indicated the following four critical phases of knowledge transfer: at hospital discharge, at the first outpatient visit, during rehabilitation, and during all follow-up outpatient visits. Important patient goals were understanding the event in relation to daily life and its implications on resuming daily life. During follow-up, understanding physical limitations and coping with the condition and medication side effects in daily life emerged as the most important patient goals. The professionals' goals were to improve recovery, enhance medication adherence, and offer coping support. Conclusions: There is a remarkable difference between patients' and professionals' goals regarding information and education after myocardial infarction. Mixed reality may be a practical tool to unite perspectives of patients and professionals on the disease in a more even manner, and thus optimize knowledge transfer after myocardial infarction. Improving medication knowledge seems to be a feasible target for mixed reality. However, further research is needed to create durable methods for education on medication through mixed reality interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere17147
Number of pages12
JournalJMIR Human Factors
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Human factors
  • Mixed reality
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Patient education
  • Patient experience
  • PROM


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