Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

NMP Bocken, IC de Pauw, CA Bakker, B van der Grinten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1591 Citations (Scopus)
3221 Downloads (Pure)


The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper develops a framework of strategies to guide designers and business strategists in the move from a linear to a circular economy. Building on Stahel, the terminology
of slowing, closing, and narrowing resource loops is introduced. A list of product design strategies, business model strategies, and examples for key decision-makers in businesses is introduced, to facilitate the move to a circular economy. This framework also opens up a future research agenda for the circular economy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-320
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Industrial and Production Engineering
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016


  • Circular business model
  • circular design
  • circularity
  • sustainability
  • closed loop
  • circular economy


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