Quantum Network Utility Maximization

Gayane Vardoyan*, Stephanie Wehner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Network Utility Maximization (NUM) is a mathe-matical framework that has endowed researchers with powerful methods for designing and analyzing classical communication protocols. NUM has also enabled the development of distributed algorithms for solving the resource allocation problem, while at the same time providing certain guarantees, e.g., that of fair treatment, to the users of a network. We extend here the notion of NUM to quantum networks, and propose three quantum utility functions - each incorporating a different entanglement measure. We aim both to gain an understanding of some of the ways in which quantum users may perceive utility, as well as to explore structured and theoretically-motivated methods of simultaneously servicing multiple users in distributed quantum systems. Using our quantum NUM constructions, we develop an optimization framework for networks that use the single-photon scheme for entanglement generation, which enables us to solve the resource allocation problem while exploring rate-fidelity tradeoffs within the network topologies that we consider. We learn that two of our utility functions, which are based on distillable entanglement and secret key fraction, are in close agreement with each other and produce similar solutions to the optimization problems we study. While these two utilities place a higher emphasis on end-to-end fidelity, our third utility- based on entanglement negativity - has more favorable mathematical properties, and tends to place a higher value on the rate at which users receive entangled resources. These contrasting behaviors thus provide ideas regarding the suitability of quantum network utility definitions to different quantum applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2023 IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering, QCE 2023
EditorsHausi Muller, Yuri Alexev, Andrea Delgado, Greg Byrd
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ, USA
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-4323-6
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event4th IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering, QCE 2023 - Bellevue, United States
Duration: 17 Sept 202322 Sept 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings - 2023 IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering, QCE 2023


Conference4th IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering, QCE 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • entanglement distribution
  • network utility maximization
  • quantum network
  • resource allocation


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