Reduction of wave overtopping and force impact at harbor quays due to very oblique waves

Sebastian Dan, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Suzuki, Tim Spiesschaert, Toon Verwaest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Physical model experiments were conducted in a wave tank at Flanders Hydraulics Research, Antwerp, Belgium, to characterize the wave overtopping and impact force on vertical quay walls and sloping sea dike (1:2.5) under very oblique wave attack (angle between 45° and 80°). This study was triggered by the scarce scientific literature on the overtopping and force reduction due to very oblique waves since large reduction is expected for both when compared with the perpendicular wave attack. The study aimed to compare the results from the experimental tests with formulas derived from previous experiments and applicable to a Belgian harbor generic case. The influence of storm return walls and crest berm width on top of the dikes has been analyzed in combination with the wave obliqueness. The results indicate significant reduction of the overtopping due to very oblique waves and new reduction coefficients were proposed. When compared with formulas from previous studies the proposed coefficients indicate the best fit for the overtopping reduction. Position of the storm return wall respect to the quay edge rather than its height was found to be more important for preventing wave induced overtopping. The force reduction is up to approximately 50% for the oblique waves with respect to the perpendicular wave impact and reduction coefficients were proposed for two different configurations a sea dike and vertical quay wall, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number598
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • EurOtop manual
  • Force reduction
  • Oblique waves
  • Overtopping reduction
  • Storm return wall


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