Operando spectroscopic techniques (Diffusive Reflective Infrared Fourier-Transform and Mössbauer emission spectroscopy) were combined to investigate the role of oxygenates deposition on deactivation of cobalt on titania Fischer-Tropsch catalysts at high pressure. Clear formation of carboxylates was seen for catalysts prepared via both impregnation and precipitation, but more and heavier carboxylates were seen on the impregnated catalyst. This effect is related to a higher olefin content in the products obtained with the impregnated sample, resulting to increased formation of oxygenates through the hydroformylation side reaction. The combined gas chromatography/infrared spectroscopy data demonstrated that the surface carboxylate species are not involved in the catalyst deactivation, being most likely spectator species on the titania support.
- Mössbauer spectroscopy