S-system theory applied to array-based GNSS ionospheric sensing

Amir Khodabandeh*, Peter J G Teunissen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The GPS carrier-phase and code data have proven to be valuable sources of measuring the Earth’s ionospheric total electron content (TEC). With the development of new GNSSs with multi frequency data, many more ionosphere-sensing combinations of different precision can be formed as input of ionospheric modelling. We present the general way of interpreting such combinations through an application of S-system theory and address how their precision propagates into that of the unbiased TEC solution. Presenting the data relevant to TEC determination, we propose the usage of an array of GNSS antennas to improve the TEC precision and to expedite the rather long observational time-span required for high-precision TEC determination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429–452
Number of pages24
JournalStudia Geophysica et Geodaetica: a journal of geophysics, geodesy, meteorology and climatology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2017


  • array-based setup
  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)
  • ionospheric estimability
  • singularity-system theory
  • total electron content (TEC)


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