Semi-automated vs manually controlled dynamic facades: assessment through a field study on multi-domain occupant satisfaction

Alessandra Luna-Navarro*, Guido Lori, Dieter Callewaert, Mauro Overend

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
53 Downloads (Pure)


Occupant satisfaction and acceptance with automated control strategies for dynamic façades is currently a barrier to the upscale of these systems. Building owners, designers and occupants are often unconvinced that an automated control strategy for dynamic façades could really be beneficial for building energy efficiency and occupant satisfaction. Previous work has indicated that an integrated multi-domain approach is required for capturing the influence of façades on occupants. The aim of this paper is to provide new knowledge on whether dynamic automated facades with user override (semi-automated) can outperform manually operated facades in terms of occupant multi-domain satisfaction. Occupant interaction, discomfort, satisfaction and indoor environmental quality were monitored in two different scenarios: one where the façade blinds were automatically controlled, aiming at maximising daylight and outdoor view access whilst mitigating glare, and one in which the façade blinds were manually controlled by the occupants. Results showed that when the façade was controlled by a semi-automated strategy, occupant satisfaction was higher (especially in the thermal environment), despite occupants reported a higher number of discomfort events due to lack of daylight and access to outdoor view. However, to increase occupant acceptance, a better prediction of occupant glare to prevent visual discomfort and maximise daylight and view is necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112912
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • automated facade
  • dynamic facade
  • occupant interaction
  • occupant satisfaction


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