State of the Art and Potentials of Additive Manufactured Earth (AME)

Elisabeth Endres, Jan Mehnert, Linda Hildebrand, Marcel Schweiker, Eike Roswag-Klinge, U. Knaack

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Additive production techniques such as 3D printing and robotics enable new production methods and possible uses for earth, as one of the most ancient building materials in the building industry. This study examines the potential of different building elements and components and their possible combinations made of or containing earthen building products. In addition to the 3D printing of lightweight, highly insulating external and heavy internal wall elements and load-bearing rammed earth walls for use as inner and outside walls are compared. Furthermore, the activation of the walls with water-based heating and cooling elements is taken into consideration. In particular, the sensitivity of earth to humidity and water has a positive effect on all life cycle phases from production through operation as a low-tech building to the end of use, i.e. the reuse as well as the possible return to natural cycles. The focus of the study is to assess the building material earth in light of modern production methodologies, the impact on indoor comfort and indoor air quality as well its life cycle assessment.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 9th PowerSKIN Conference
EditorsThomas Auer, Ulrich Knaack, Jens Schneider
PublisherTU Delft Open
ISBN (Electronic)978-9463664066
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event9th PowerSKIN Conference: simplicity vs. performance? - Munich, Germany
Duration: 9 Apr 20219 Apr 2021


Conference9th PowerSKIN Conference
Internet address


  • Earth construction
  • circularity
  • indoor environmental quality
  • user satisfaction
  • user health
  • additive manufacturing


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