This paper reviews the literature that identifies Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production. It further explains how processes associated with the recovery of oil and gas enhances NORM'S concentration and also develops Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). It redefines TENORM from technical and scientific perspectives and explains how spectral gamma ray logging technology helps to prove the presence of NORM as an indication of oil and gas presence. This article provides a better understanding of TENORM waste disposal practices that poses serious health and environmental risks. It makes a strong argument for the importance of TENORM risk assessment and management through process safety approaches. Finally, it identifies the knowledge and technical gaps related to TENORM in oil and gas production, which require further studies and research.
- Risk assessment