In this work, we present results of flow visualisation, pressure gradient measurements, and liquid holdup measurements for air-water flow without and with surfactants in vertical pipes with diameters of 34 mm, 50 mm, and 80 mm. The surfactants cause the formation of foam. This foam has a larger volume and a smaller density than the liquid. The larger volume results in a larger pressure gradient at large gas flow rates. At small gas flow rates, the lower density of the foam causes the transition between the regular annular flow regime and the irregular churn flow regime to shift to lower gas flow rates. As a result foam reduces the pressure gradient and the liquid holdup at small gas flow rates. Surfactants are more reduce the pressure gradient more effectively for thinner liquid films at the wall; therefore, they are more effective for small pipe diameters and small liquid flow rates.
|Pages (from-to)||179 - 190|
|Journal||International Journal of Multiphase Flow|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|