The influence of preparation and pretreatment on the physicochemical properties and performance of plant-based biocoagulants in treating wastewater

Setyo Budi Kurniawan*, Azmi Ahmad, Nor Sakinah Mohd Said, Kiki Gustinasari, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Muhammad Fauzul Imron*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
53 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Biocoagulants have gained attention as an alternative to chemical coagulants in water and wastewater treatment due to their ability to remove pollutant parameters such as turbidity, suspended solids, color, and organic compounds. Plant-based biocoagulants are currently the most promising due to their abundant availability and reliable performance. A proper preparation of plant-based biocoagulants is required to ensure the active compounds from the plants can be extracted. Plant raw materials are prepared into biocoagulants using drying and grinding, extraction, and purification. In mechanical preparation, drying and grinding exhibit great influence on the performance of plant-based biocoagulants due to the removal of moisture and higher contact with the carrier medium during dissolution. A smaller biocoagulant's size resulted in up to 78 % higher removal of turbidity. In chemical preparation, the oil needs to be removed before extracting the active ingredients to avoid low active compound extraction yields. The defatting of Moringa oleifera seeds showed an 18 % higher protein content. Salt and alcohol extractions were mentioned as superior extraction methods to obtain carbohydrate and protein from plant-based biocoagulants compared to water extraction, with up to a 5 % increment in turbidity removal. Preparation and pretreatment protocols have a great influence on the properties and performance of plant-based biocoagulants. Further extension of research on plant-based biocoagulants should address the problems in the initial characterization of plant material, standard pretreatment and preparation protocols, and real-scale application of plant-based biocoagulants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100441
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Advances
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Biocoagulant
  • Coagulant
  • Environmental pollution
  • Extraction
  • Properties
  • Synthesis

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