The recoverability of network controllability with respect to node additions

Fenghua Wang*, Robert E. Kooij

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Network controllability is a critical attribute of dynamic networked systems. Investigating methods to restore network controllability after network degradation is crucial for enhancing system resilience. In this study, we develop an analytical method based on degree distributions to estimate the minimum fraction of required driver nodes for network controllability under random node additions after the random removal of a subset of nodes. The outcomes of our method closely align with numerical simulation results for both synthetic and real-world networks. Additionally, we compare the efficacy of various node recovery strategies across directed Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks, swarm signaling networks (SSNs), and directed Barabàsi Albert (BA) networks. Our findings indicate that the most efficient recovery strategy for directed ER networks and SSNs is the greedy strategy, which considers node betweenness centrality. Similarly, for directed BA networks, the greedy strategy focusing on node degree centrality emerges as the most efficient. These strategies outperform recovery approaches based on degree centrality or betweenness centrality, as well as the strategy involving random node additions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103034
Number of pages20
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • network controllability
  • network resilience
  • recoverability
  • recovery strategies


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