Thermodynamic analysis and heat exchanger calculations of transcritical high-temperature heat pumps

An Zhao*, Rene Pecnik, Jurriaan W.R. Peeters

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Heating in industrial processes is responsible for approximately 13% of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. Switching from fossil-fuel based boilers to heat pumps can help mitigate the effect of global warming. The present work proposes novel high-temperature transcritical heat pump cycles targeted at heating air with a mass flow rate of 10 kg/s up to 200 °C for spray drying processes. Four low-GWP refrigerants, R1233zd(E), R1336mzz(Z), n-Butane, and Ammonia are considered as the candidate working fluids. The pressure ratio of the compressor is optimized to achieve a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) for the four working fluids. A shell & tube heat exchanger is considered as the gas cooler. Using a generalized version of the ϵ-NTU method, the gas cooler is sized and a second law analysis is conducted. Striking a balance between the first- and second-law performance and size of the gas cooler, the R1233zd(E) transcritical heat pump cycle with a COP of 3.6 is judged to be the most promising option.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118172
Number of pages18
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Publication statusPublished - 2024


This work is funded by the ‘ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland via the subsidy scheme Missiegedreven Onderzoek, Ontwikkeling en Innovatie - Industrie (TSE-20-22-04). Project: KickStart market industrial heat pumps . Project number: MOOI42002 .


  • Heat pump
  • Low-GWP refrigerants
  • Second law analysis
  • Transcritical


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