Thermodynamic determination and assessment of the CsF-ThF4 system

N. Vozárová*, A. L. Smith, J-Y Colle, Philippe E. Raison, D. Bouëxière, R. J.M. Konings, O. Beneš

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


In this study we present a comprehensive thermodynamic description of the binary CsF-ThF4 system. The phase equilibria of several intermediate compositions in this system have been determined using the DSC technique combined with a post-analysis using powder X-ray diffraction. Considering all the novel experimental data, a thermodynamic model for the CsF-ThF4 system has been developed for the first time using the Calphad approach. The present model reproduces very well the measurements performed. Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) has further been used to investigate the vapour pressure over the molten CsF-ThF4 salt and to determine the thermodynamic activities of CsF and ThF4 in the liquid solution. As part of this study, the vaporization of pure CsF was examined and the results were compared with the literature showing a good agreement. Next, the vapour pressure of CsF-ThF4 in the liquid solution was investigated by measuring three samples with compositions X ThF4 = (0.4, 0.6, 0.8) mol/mol. A strong negative deviation from Raoult's law was observed for both species, more evident in case of CsF, and a good agreement with the predictions of our thermodynamic model was found. This article is a pre-requisite for the assessment of the ternary LiF-CsF-ThF4 system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-82
Number of pages12
JournalThe Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • Fluorides
  • Molten salt reactor
  • Nuclear fuel safety
  • Phase equilibria
  • Thermodynamics
  • Vapour pressure


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