Towards generalized ship's manoeuvre models based on real time simulation results in port approach areas

N. M. Quy, Kinga Łazuga*, Lucjan Gucma, J. K. Vrijling, P. H.A.J.M. van Gelder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents an attempts towards creation of generalized models of ships manoeuvring area determination and ship performance created on the base of real simulation results. Those models are needed for better understanding of the safe navigation process in ports areas and its approaches and for risk analysis when no full information about the ships behaviour is available. The data coming from real time ship simulations that are conducted by experienced pilots and captains are applied in the study. In the first step, general regression models are created to determine manoeuvring areas and major correlations between basic parameters affecting the safe area needed for ships to navigate in restricted areas of ports and its approaches. In the second step, the ship performance models are created to describe the behaviour of the ship including human factors. The ship performance for long-term prediction of the navigation risk regarding the possibility of ships exceeding the channel limits, assumed as grounding or collision with a fixed structure are created by the method which consists of two developed models: (1) an ARMAX (Auto Regressive and Moving Average eXogenous) model is adopted to identify the ship steering dynamic system. With the help of this model, the outputs of the system (course, position, etc.) can be estimated based on the system input conditions (rudder, engine, etc.); (2) the stochastic sequences of the inputs for the first model used are generated using a semi-Markov model. In the paper the implementation of the semi-Markov model for rudder actions has been described. The study used input/output measurements from a ship-handling simulator to estimate the model parameters, so the human factor has been included in the models. The method allows us to extend the results obtained from the simulator to predict future conditions of the system outputs. Since the predicted results and using probabilistic approach, possible ship manoeuvring area margins will be identified and long - term assessment of the navigation risk can be realized.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107476
Number of pages12
JournalOcean Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Generalization of ship simulation data
  • Real-time ship manoeuvring simulation
  • Risk assessment
  • Ship manoeuvring area


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