This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of the fine recycled concrete aggregates (fRCA), focusing on their physical and chemical properties, engineering properties and durability of concretes with fRCA. Based on the systematic review of the published literature, it is impossible to deduce without any further research the guidelines and tools to introduce the widespread application of the fRCA in new concrete whilst keeping the cement contents at least the same or preferably lower. Namely, what is still missing is knowledge on key physico-chemical properties and their relation to the quality of the concrete mix and the concrete performance. This paper sets the foundations for better understanding the quality of fRCA obtained either from parent concrete specifically produced in the laboratory, with controlled crushing and sieving of the recycled aggregates or from field structures. By comparing properties of fRCA with properties of fine natural aggregates, the key limiting properties of fRCA are identified as the high water absorption of fRCA, moisture state of fRCA, agglomeration of particles and adhered mortar. As such, continuous quality of fRCA is hard to be obtained, even though they may be more continuous in terms of chemistry. Advanced characterization techniques and concrete technology tools are needed to account for limiting properties of fRCA in concrete mix design.
- Concrete mix design
- Engineering properties
- Fine natural aggregates
- Fine recycled concrete aggregates
- Quality indicators