## Abstract

The simple semi-empirical precursor soot model of Brookes and Moss based on the soot number density and soot mass concentration is adopted in a transported probability density function (PDF) method for turbulent diffusion flames. The gas phase chemistry is described by a flamelet generated manifold (FGM) based on the mixture fraction, progress variable and enthalpy loss. The accuracy of the FGM method is validated by using flamelet solutions that are not included in the generating set of the FGM. To account for the radiative heat transfer in the flames, we use a non-gray weighted sum of gray gases model for the gas radiation and a gray soot radiation model. Turbulence–radiation interaction is closed at the level of the optically thin fluctuation approximation and the Reynolds averaged radiative transfer equation is solved by means of a discrete transfer method. The proposed modeling approach is applied in simulations of two turbulent non-premixed methane–air flames at one bar and three bar pressure, respectively. Predictions of the mean temperature and mean soot volume fraction are in good agreement with the measurements in the one bar flame. In the higher pressure flame the mean soot volume fraction is over predicted. For this flame, simulation results using the semi-empirical model of Lindstedt provided better agreement with the measurements. The main difference between the Brookes and Moss model and the Lindstedt model is the nine-times increased soot particle agglomeration rate of the latter. When using the same increased agglomeration rate parameter in the Brookes and Moss model the results become virtually identical. The negligible molecular diffusion of the soot was accounted for by neglecting mean molecular diffusion of the soot variables and by greatly reducing their micro-mixing. The effect of this differential soot diffusion on the mean soot volume fraction is found to be small, but it is significant for the variance of the soot volume fraction.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 105567 |

Number of pages | 13 |

Journal | Computers and Fluids |

Volume | 245 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2022 |

### Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-careOtherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.

## Keywords

- Chemistry Reduction
- Flamelet Generated Manifold
- PDF modeling
- Soot formation
- Turbulence–Radiation-Interaction