Validation of a novel bicycle simulator with realistic lateral and roll motion

Jelle Haasnoot, Riender Happee, Volkert van der Wijk, Arend L. Schwab*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Bicycle simulators have been the subject of considerable research, however, few of these attempts have integrated direct balance control and realistic freedom of motion to deliver a real-world dynamic cycling experience. This study presents the BIKE (Bicycle Intrinsic Kinematics Emulator) system, a kinematic bicycle simulator, developed with the purpose of letting its users experience realistic steer, roll, yaw and sway motions. Motion is provided with Carvallo–Whipple bicycle model-based control of sway and yaw combined with passive steer and roll. This study validates the BIKE simulator by comparing cycling behaviour and subjective evaluation for the simulator with and without motion to outdoor tests with an instrumented bicycle. 15 participants of varying age and mass, performed straight-line cycling, at low ((Formula presented.)) to high ((Formula presented.)) velocities and zig-zag manoeuvres. Results show that users can successfully rely on existing cycling skills to use the simulator with motion. Objectively, in the kinematic sense, the simulator with motion performs similarly to an outdoor bicycle. Subjectively, the simulator performs better with motion and is experienced by riders as close to real outdoor cycling.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalVehicle System Dynamics
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Bicycle
  • dynamics
  • kinematics
  • modelling
  • simulation


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