Verifiable Credentials with Privacy-Preserving Tamper-Evident Revocation Mechanism

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Verifiable Credential (VC) is a new standard proposed by the W3C association to facilitate the expression and verification of third-party-verified credentials on the Internet, such as passports or diplomas. However, the current VC data model lacks an explicit revocation design that guarantees the secure operations of the system, which limits its application. In this paper, we specify the requirements for a tamper-evident and privacy-preserving revocation mechanism, based on which we compare existing solutions and propose our revocation mechanism that satisfies all the requirements. Our design combines a cryptographic accumulator and a role-based blockchain. With zero-knowledge proof, the verifier can operate off-chain computation of the revocation status while ensuring the correctness of revocation information published on the blockchain. Our analysis shows that the proposed revocation mechanism can prevent fraud using forged and revoked credentials and relieve privacy concerns caused by the correlation of digital data. Our proof-of-concept implementation demonstrates that our revocation mechanism adds only 42.86 ms overhead in the presentation and 31.36 ms overhead in the verification of verifiable credentials. We also provide scalability analysis, which illustrates that the throughput of our blockchain can meet real-world needs.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2023 Fifth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA)
Place of PublicationDanvers
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-3923-9
ISBN (Print)979-8-3503-3924-6
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event2023 Fifth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA) - Kuwait, Kuwait
Duration: 24 Oct 202326 Oct 2023
Conference number: 5th


Conference2023 Fifth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA)

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • verifiable credential
  • revocation
  • blockchain
  • zero-knowledge proof
  • privacy


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