In this paper, systems of nonlinear integro-differential Volterra equations are examined that can be represented as feedback interconnections of linear time-invariant block and periodic nonlinearities. The interest in such systems is motivated by their numerous applications in mechanical, electrical and communication engineering; examples include, but are not limited to, models of phase-locked loops, pendulum-like mechanical systems, coupled vibrational units and electric machines. Systems with periodic nonlinearities are usually featured by multistability and have infinite sequences of (locally) stable and unstable equilibria; their trajectories may exhibit nontrivial (e.g. chaotic) behavior. We offer frequency-domain criteria, ensuring convergence of any solution to one of the equilibria points, and this property is referred to as the gradient-like behavior and corresponds to phase locking in synchronization systems. Although it is hard to find explicitly the equilibrium, attracting a given trajectory, we give a constructive estimate for the distance between this limit equilibrium and the initial condition. The relevant estimates are closely related to the analysis of cycle slipping in synchronization systems. In the case where the criterion of gradient-type behavior fails, a natural question arises-which nonconverging solutions may exist in the system and, in particular, how many periodic solutions it has. We show that a relaxation of the frequency-domain convergence criterion ensures the absence of high-frequency periodic orbits. The results obtained in the paper are based on the method of integral quadratic constraints that has arisen in absolute stability theory and stems from Popov's techniques of "a priori integral indices". We illustrate the analytic results by numerical simulations.
- Integral equations
- nonlinear system