Zooplankton community turnover in response to a novel TiO2-coated nano-formulation of carbendazim and its constituents

Tom A.P. Nederstigt*, Bo Bode, J. Ruud van Ommen, Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg, Martina G. Vijver

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Novel nanomaterial-based pesticide formulations are increasingly perceived as promising aids in the transition to more efficient agricultural production systems. The current understanding of potential unintended (eco)toxicological impacts of nano-formulated pesticides is scarce, in particular with regard to (non-target) aquatic organisms and ecosystems. The present study reports the results of a long-term freshwater mesocosm experiment which assessed responses of individual zooplankton taxa and communities to a novel TiO2-coated nano-formulation of the fungicide carbendazim. Population- and community trends were assessed and compared in response to the nano-formulation and its constituents applied individually (i.e. nano-sized TiO2, carbendazim) and in combination (i.e. nano-sized TiO2 & carbendazim). Minimal differences were observed between effects induced by the nano-formulation and its active ingredient (i.e. carbendazim) when applied at equivalent nominal test concentrations (4 μg L−1). Nano-sized TiO2 was found to affect zooplankton community trends when applied separately at environmentally realistic concentrations (20 μg L−1 nominal test concentration). However, when nano-sized TiO2 was applied in combination with carbendazim, nano-sized TiO2 was found not to alter effects on community trends induced by carbendazim. The findings of the current study provide an extensive and timely addition to the current body of work available on non-target impacts of nano-formulated pesticides.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121894
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Community
  • Controlled-release
  • Mesocosm
  • Nano-formulation
  • Nano-pesticide
  • Zooplankton


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