A Self-Bias-Flip with Charge Recycle Interface Circuit with No External Energy Reservoir for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Array

Zhen Li, Zhiyuan Chen*, Jing Wang, Jiawei Wang, Junmin Jiang, Sijun Du, Xu Cheng, Xiaoyang Zeng, Jun Han

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This article presents a piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) interface circuit using a new self-bias-flip with the charge recycle (SBFR) technique without employing any additional energy reservoir. Traditional designs, including synchronous-switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), synchronous-switch harvesting on capacitor (SSHC), synchronous electric charge extraction (SECE), etc., require additional capacitors or inductors to reverse the voltage on the PEH at the zero-crossing point. This design innovatively uses the inherent capacitors of the piezoelectric harvesters as the flipping capacitors. In order to improve the extract efficiency of the interface, the zero-crossing state is split into a charge recycle stage and a voltage-flip stage. For a piezoelectric array with 2^n PEHs, a configuration with (n-1) phases in the charge recycle stage is adopted to reduce the loss caused by direct charge neutralization. The charge redistribution loss is reduced by employing (2n+1) phases in the voltage-flip stage. The proposed principle has been implemented with discrete components and is verified by three different prototypes. The measurement results show that a flipping efficiency of 67% is achieved by utilizing SBFR with four PEHs. And the proposed interface can provide up to 5.2x improvement when compared with the full-bridge rectifier (FBR).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11630-11641
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 62004041 and 62104093, in part by theMajor Scientific and Technological Innovation Projects of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission under Grant 2017-01-07-00-07-E00026, and in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grants 2018YFB2202400 and 2018YFB2202404.


  • Energy harvesting
  • maximum output power improving rate (MOPIR)
  • multiple input
  • piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH)
  • self-bias-flip
  • synchronous-switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI)


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