Cathodes for electron microscopy and lithography

Pieter Kruit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Electron sources for high-resolution applications such as microscopy and lithography are characterized by their brightness and energy spread rather than by their total emission current. In fact, most of the emitted current is cut out by apertures and only nanoamps or at most microamps actually reach the sample or wafer. This chapter reviews the physics and practical properties of the electron sources that are typically used in microscopy and lithography. It is an extension of topics addressed in [1] with special emphasis on application aspects and their emitter requirements. Recent developments are reviewed. The relations between the source properties and the resolution and throughput of these instruments is derived and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationModern Developments in Vacuum Electron Sources
EditorsG. Gaertner
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-47290-0
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Publication series

NameTopics in Applied Physics
ISSN (Print)0303-4216
ISSN (Electronic)1437-0859


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