DaisyRec 2.0: Benchmarking Recommendation for Rigorous Evaluation

Zhu Sun, Hui Fang*, Jie Yang, Xinghua Qu, Hongyang Liu, Di Yu, Yew Soon Ong, Jie Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)


Recently, one critical issue looms large in the field of recommender systems - there are no effective benchmarks for rigorous evaluation - which consequently leads to unreproducible evaluation and unfair comparison. We, therefore, conduct studies from the perspectives of practical theory and experiments, aiming at benchmarking recommendation for rigorous evaluation. Regarding the theoretical study, a series of hyper-factors affecting recommendation performance throughout the whole evaluation chain are systematically summarized and analyzed via an exhaustive review on 141 papers published at eight top-tier conferences within 2017-2020. We then classify them into model-independent and model-dependent hyper-factors, and different modes of rigorous evaluation are defined and discussed in-depth accordingly. For the experimental study, we release DaisyRec 2.0 library by integrating these hyper-factors to perform rigorous evaluation, whereby a holistic empirical study is conducted to unveil the impacts of different hyper-factors on recommendation performance. Supported by the theoretical and experimental studies, we finally create benchmarks for rigorous evaluation by proposing standardized procedures and providing performance of ten state-of-the-arts across six evaluation metrics on six datasets as a reference for later study. Overall, our work sheds light on the issues in recommendation evaluation, provides potential solutions for rigorous evaluation, and lays foundation for further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8206-8226
Number of pages21
JournalIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Benchmarks
  • fair comparison
  • recommender systems
  • reproducible evaluation
  • standardized procedures


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