Design and Validation of Experimental Setup for Cell Spheroid Radiofrequency-Induced Heating

Ioannis Androulakis, Riccardo Ferrero, Rogier van Oossanen, Alessandra Manzin, Antonia G. Denkova, Kristina Djanashvili, Robin Nadar, Gerard C. van Rhoon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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While hyperthermia has been shown to induce a variety of cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on cancer tissues, the thermal dose–effect relationship is still not well quantified, and it is still unclear how it can be optimally combined with other treatment modalities. Additionally, it is speculated that different methods of applying hyperthermia, such as water bath heating or electromagnetic energy, may have an effect on the resulting biological mechanisms involved in cell death or in sensitizing tumor cells to other oncological treatments. In order to further quantify and characterize hyperthermia treatments on a cellular level, in vitro experiments shifted towards the use of 3D cell spheroids. These are in fact considered a more representative model of the cell environment when compared to 2D cell cultures. In order to perform radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating in vitro, we have recently developed a dedicated electromagnetic field applicator. In this study, using this applicator, we designed and validated an experimental setup which can heat 3D cell spheroids in a conical polypropylene vial, thus providing a reliable instrument for investigating hyperthermia effects at the cellular scale.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4514
Number of pages14
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • cells, cultured
  • combined modality therapy
  • drug screening assays, antitumor
  • electromagnetic fields
  • hyperthermia, induced
  • tumor cells, cultured


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