Design for material properties of additively manufactured metals using topology optimization

Vibhas Mishra*, Can Ayas, Matthijs Langelaar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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In metal Additive Manufacturing (AM), the deposited material is subjected to a series of heating and cooling cycles. The locally occurring temperature extremes and cooling rates determine solid-state phase fractions, material microstructure, texture, and ultimately the local material properties. As the shape of a part determines the local thermal history during AM, this offers an opportunity to influence these material properties through design. In this paper, we present a way to obtain desired properties by controlling the local thermal history. This is achieved through topology optimization of the printed part while considering its entire transient thermal history. As an example of this approach, this work focuses on high strength low alloy steels, where resulting phase fractions significantly influence mechanical properties such as yield strength and ductility. These solid-state phase fractions depend on cooling rates in a particular critical temperature range. The phase composition and hence the local yield strength in target regions can be controlled by constraining the cooling time in this range. Numerical examples illustrate the capability of the proposed approach in adapting part designs to achieve various desired material properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112388
Number of pages17
JournalMaterials and Design
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Cooling rate control
  • HSLA steel
  • Microstructure
  • Property optimization
  • Topology optimization


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