Evaluation of scale-resolving simulations for a turbulent channel flow

M. Klapwijk*, T. Lloyd, G. Vaz, T. van Terwisga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
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Different variable resolution turbulence modelling approaches (Hybrid, Bridging models and LES) are evaluated for turbulent channel flow at Reτ=395, for cases using either streamwise periodic boundary conditions or a synthetic turbulence generator. The effect of iterative, statistical and discretisation errors is investigated. For LES, little difference between the different sub-filter modelling approaches is found on the finer grids, while on coarser grids ILES deviates from explicit LES approaches. The results for Hybrid models are strongly dependent on their formulation, and the corresponding blending between the RANS and LES regions. The application of PANS with different ratios of modelled-to-total kinetic energy, fk, shows that there is no smooth transition in the results between RANS and DNS. Instead a case-dependent threshold which separates two solution regimes is observed: fk values below 0.2 yield a proper turbulent solution, similar to LES results; higher fk values lead to a laminar flow due to filtering of the smallest scales in the inverse energy cascade. The application of a synthetic turbulence generator is observed to yield similar performance for all models. The reduced computational cost and increased flexibility makes it a suitable approach to enable the usage of SRS for industrial flow cases which depend on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. It ensures that sufficient large-scale structures develop over the full boundary layer height, thereby negating the problem of relying on the inverse energy cascade for the development of turbulence. Both LES and PANS with turbulence generator yield a better match with the reference data than Hybrid models; of these methods PANS is preferable due to the separation of modelling and discretisation errors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104636
Number of pages20
JournalComputers and Fluids
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • DES
  • LES
  • PANS
  • Synthetic turbulence
  • Turbulent channel flow
  • Verification


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