Human Digital Twin, the Development and Impact on Design

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In the past decade, human digital twins (HDTs) attracted attention in both digital twin (DT) applications and beyond. In this paper, we discuss the concept and the development of HDTs, focusing on their architecture, key enabling technologies, and (potential) applications. Based on the literature, we identify personal data, model, and interface as three key modules in the proposed HDT architecture, supported by a data lake of human data and a model and interface library. Regarding the key enabling technologies that support the HDT functions, we envision that the internet of things (IoT) infrastructure, data security, wearables, human modeling, explainable artificial intelligence (AI), minimum viable sensing, and data visualization are closely associated with the development of HDTs. Finally, we investigate current applications of HDTs, with a particular emphasis on the opportunities that arise from leveraging HDTs in the field of personalized product design.
Original languageEnglish
Article number060819
Pages (from-to)060819-1 - 060819-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • engineering informatics
  • human computer interfaces/interactions
  • information management
  • multiscale modeling and simulation


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