ROBUST: 221 bugs in the Robot Operating System

Christopher S. Timperley*, Gijs van der Hoorn, André Santos, Harshavardhan Deshpande, Andrzej Wąsowski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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As robotic systems such as autonomous cars and delivery drones assume greater roles and responsibilities within society, the likelihood and impact of catastrophic software failure within those systems is increased. To aid researchers in the development of new methods to measure and assure the safety and quality of robotics software, we systematically curated a dataset of 221 bugs across 7 popular and diverse software systems implemented via the Robot Operating System (ROS). We produce historically accurate recreations of each of the 221 defective software versions in the form of Docker images, and use a grounded theory approach to examine and categorize their corresponding faults, failures, and fixes. Finally, we reflect on the implications of our findings and outline future research directions for the community.

Original languageEnglish
Article number57
Number of pages41
JournalEmpirical Software Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • BugZoo
  • Dataset
  • Robot Operating System
  • Robotics
  • ROS
  • Software bugs


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