Safety Assessment of the Interaction Between an Automated Vehicle and a Cyclist: A Controlled Field Test

Maria Oskina*, Haneen Farah, Peter Morsink, Riender Happee, Bart van Arem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
25 Downloads (Pure)


The operation of automated vehicles (AVs) on shared roads requires attention concerning their interactions with vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as cyclists. This study investigates the safety of cyclists when they interact with an AV and compares it with their interaction with a conventional vehicle. Overall, 29 cyclists participated in a controlled field experiment consisting of interaction scenarios in which a vehicle approached the cyclist from behind. Four interaction scenarios were included: manual and automated following and manual and automated overtaking of the cyclist. The vehicle operated in all scenarios in a manual mode for safety reasons. However, before each ride, participants received information about the vehicle’s operation mode (automated or manual). The following attributes were considered: overtaking speed, overtaking lateral distance, following distance, and roadside objects. The objective and the subjective risks were evaluated in each scenario. The objective risk was assessed using the probabilistic driving risk field, and the subjective risk was assessed based on the cyclists’ selfreported risk values, cycling behavior, and their trust in AVs. The results show that automated and manual following have similar objective and subjective risks, while automated overtaking has a higher level of objective and subjective risks than manual overtaking. The results also show that a longer interaction time leads to an increase in cycling speed and a decrease in the lateral distance of the cyclist to the curb. Thus, we conclude that automated following is a safer option for short traveling distances, while for longer traveling distances, manual overtaking is preferred. Additionally, a short lateral distance from the cyclist when overtaking increases the subjective and objective risks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1138-1149
Number of pages12
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • advanced driver assistance systems
  • bicycles
  • human factors
  • modeling and forecasting
  • pedestrians
  • safety


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