Thermal time as an unsharp observable

Jan van Neerven, Pierre Portal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

23 Downloads (Pure)


We show that the Connes-Rovelli thermal time associated with the quantum harmonic oscillator can be described as an (unsharp) observable, that is, as a positive operator valued measure. We furthermore present extensions of this result to the free massless relativistic particle in one dimension and to a hypothetical physical system whose equilibrium state is given by the noncommutative integral.

Original languageEnglish
Article number032105
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Mathematical Physics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024


Dive into the research topics of 'Thermal time as an unsharp observable'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this