Metallic Nanoparticle Based Interconnect for Heterogeneous 3D Integration

Henk van Zeijl, Y. Carisey, A. Damian, Rene Poelma, Zinn, A, Guo Qi Zhang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We explored the properties and performance of copper-based metallic nanoparticle paste (MNPs) for interconnects applications in 3D heterogeneous integration. A patterning method was developed to process micron sized sintered MNPs structures. This enables the fabrication of IC interconnect test structures to characterise specific resistivity sintered MNPs and the contact resistances of sintered MNP to bulk copper (bCu) which was respectively 78.4 mOhm.micrometer and 0.23 Ohm.micrometer2. In situ XRD analysis showed no oxidation of MNPs at processing temperatures below 100 °C. When Copper based MNPs are sintered under forming gas conditions, no oxidation of copper is measured. With in situ TEM at a temperature range of 220 - 260 oC local melting of copper nanoparticles was observed. This is in agreement with the electrical measurements, the resistivity and contact resistance are considerably reduced when MNPs is sintered in this temperature range. Copper-based MNPs is successfully applied as die attach and wafer to wafer (W2W) bonding. However, for W2W bonding, the specific contact resistance was 800 Ohm.micrometer2.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2016 IEEE 66th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)
EditorsLisa O'Conner
Place of PublicationPiscataway
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)978-1-5090-1204-6
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventElectronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2016 IEEE 66th - NV, Las Vegas, United States
Duration: 31 May 20163 Jun 2016
Conference number: 66


ConferenceElectronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2016 IEEE 66th
Abbreviated titleECTC
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLas Vegas
Internet address


  • copper interconnect
  • metallic nanoparticle paste
  • low-temperature sintering
  • 3D integration


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